American Journal of Physics and Applications

Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2021

  • The Quantum Properties of a Superposition of Vee Type Three-level Lasers

    Takele Teshome

    Issue: Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2021
    Pages: 64-69
    Received: 26 May 2021
    Accepted: 13 July 2021
    Published: 22 July 2021
    Abstract: The squeezing, and statistical properties of a superposed light beam produced by a lambda type three-level lasers configuration have been studied. We have determined the quadrature variances mean as well as variance photon number for cavity modes with the aid of the solutions of c-number Langevin equations associated with the normal order. We have ... Show More
  • Plasma Surface Metallurgy of Materials Based on Double Glow Discharge Phenomenon

    Zhong Xu, Jun Huang, Zaifeng Xu, Xiaoping Liu, Hongyan Wu

    Issue: Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2021
    Pages: 70-87
    Received: 13 July 2021
    Accepted: 28 July 2021
    Published: 4 August 2021
    Abstract: Plasma Surface Metallurgy /Alloying is a kind of surface metallurgy/alloying to employ low temperature plasma produced by glow discharge to diffuse alloying elements into the surface of substrate material to form an alloy layer. It is different with ion nitriding technology, which is only applicable to the surface infiltration of non-metallic eleme... Show More
  • Independent Modulation of the Phase and Amplitude of Electromagnetic Waves Based on the Phase Change of VO2 and Mode Coupling

    Tianrui Pan, Yuan Pei, Maosheng Wang, Xiaojuan Xie, Wanxia Huang

    Issue: Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2021
    Pages: 88-93
    Received: 11 July 2021
    Accepted: 2 August 2021
    Published: 12 August 2021
    Abstract: Metasurfaces in a metal–semiconductor–metal configuration have been studied in multiple contexts, including perfect absorption and phase modulation. Nevertheless, limit progress has been achieved in independent phase modulation. To study further in this work, a metasurface composed of an Au film/ VO2 film/ Au patch array with square holes was propo... Show More
  • Excel Files for Teaching About Wave Fronts and Rays for a Wave Moving in Media with Changing Index of Refraction

    Pavlos Mihas

    Issue: Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2021
    Pages: 94-101
    Received: 10 August 2021
    Accepted: 20 August 2021
    Published: 27 August 2021
    Abstract: In teaching about waves the students are learning how to find the refracted rays by using wave fronts or finding the wave fronts by using the rays. The usual teaching is based on models where the speed of the wave is constant in one medium and changes abruptly as the wave passes from one medium to another. This paper deals with ways of calculation ... Show More